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Historical Introduction

Most of Kyrgystan, a country whcih has a history spanning more than two millenia, was annexed by Czarist Russian in 1876. The defeated areas were attached to the Turkestan distrikt where the Russian colonists quickly proceeded to occupy Kyrgyz lands. In 1916, a revolt against the Czarist Empire lead to a bloodbath during the suppression. After the October Revoltuion of 1917 in Russia, repressions against the Kyrgyz people continued and the tribes of Kyrgystan fell under the control of Communist Russia. In 1936, Kyrgystan was reorganized into the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviet power transformed the nomadic Kyrgyz people to settle in one place and this lead to the forced collectivization of the 1930s. After the Second World War, immigration by Russians lead to the country being dominated by them until the 1960s. The second half of the 20th century didn't ease the tensions between the Kyrgyz people and the Russians. Liberal changes to the regime and change of the party leadership at the end of the 1980s lead to mass revolts in the capital Bishkek in 1990. In February 1990, clashes took place between Kyrgyzs and Uzbeks in Osis etc. that lead to 186 deaths. After a thousand years of divisions, lack of statehood and occupation by foreign powers, in August 1991, the independence of Kyrgystan was declared. In a post-communist state with political instability, weakness of cibil society, privatization of the state-owned economy, negative trends in democracy and political freedoms, reduction of corruption, interethnic relations etc, the so called Tulip Revolution took place, which attempted to bring about changes in the authocratic state.

The nature and extent of communist repressions, as well as the total number of victims is unataiable through more common records and therefore unknown to the author of this text.
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