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1921-1956

Despite the communist’s victory in 1921 pockets of guerilla resistance still remained in the mountains and some rural areas. The newly established Communist government initially offered unexpectedly mild terms to their former opponents who still remained in the country, but then on the influence of Stalin, Dzerzhinsky, and Ordzhonikidze it was changed. In 1922, Georgia was forcibly incorporated into the Transcaucasian SFSR comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (including Abkhazia amd South Ossetia). The Soviet Government forced Georgia to cede several areas to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia. This so called "Georgian Affair” became one of the major points at issue between Stalin and Trotsky in the last years of Lenin's leadership and found its reflection in "Lenin's Political Testament". The Georgian Orthodox Church was also persecuted; over 1,500 churches and monasteries were closed or demolished and a number of clerics were imprisoned, including Catholicos Patriarch Ambrose who was arrested and tried for having sent a letter of protest to the 1922 Genoa Conference in which he described the conditions under which Georgia was living since the Red Army invasion and begged for the "help of the civilized world". The resistance against the Soviet system became stronger, even as the world largely neglected the Soviet takeover of Georgia. On March 27 1921, the exiled Georgian leadership issued an appeal to "all socialist parties and workers' organizations" of the world, protesting against the invasion of Georgia. The appeal went unheeded, though. Beyond passionate editorials in some Western newspapers the international response to the events in Georgia was silence. The resistance to the Bolshevik regime and occasional outbreaks of guerilla warfare evolved into a major rebellion in August 1924. Soon in 1922 the opposition parties congregated into an underground movement known as the Committee for the Independence of Georgia or the "Damkom", which began preparations for a general uprising in Georgia. At the same time the Soviet secret police had soon  managed to penetrate the organization and carried out mass arrests, executing many underground leaders. Under these circumstances, some resistance leaders started to doubt whether the uprising could be successful but they were not listened. There are doubts, that the Soviets actually encouraged the rebellion so they would have a pretext for eliminating all political opposition in Georgia. On August 18, 1924, the Damkom laid plans for a general insurrection for August 29. The plan of the simultaneous uprising failed, but at first the insurgents achieved considerable success and formed an Interim Government of Georgia chaired by Prince Giorgi Tsereteli. The uprising quickly spread to neighboring areas and a large portion of western Georgia and several districts in eastern Georgia wrested out of the Soviet control. The success of the uprising was short-lived, however. Additional Red Army troops were sent into Georgia and the uprising was crushed after heavy fighting. The rebel units withdrew into mountains. The guerrilla resistance continued for several weeks, but by mid-September most of the main rebel groups had been destroyed. To crush the resistance most brutal terror was used. Stalin himself is quoted to have vowed that "all of Georgia must be plowed under". In a series of raids, the Red Army and Cheka detachments killed thousands of civilians, exterminating entire families including women and children. The exact number of victims of the terror remains unknown. Approximately 3,000 died in fighting. The number of those who were executed during the uprising or in its immediate aftermath amounted to 7,000-10,000 or even more. According to the most recent accounts included also in The Black Book of Communism, 12,578 people were put to death from August 29 to September 5, 1924. About 20,000 people were deported to Siberia.

At the same time, the events in Georgia demonstrated the necessity for greater concessions. Stalin declared that an August 1924 uprising in Georgia was sparked by dissatisfaction among the peasants and called the party to conciliate them. He admitted that "what has happened in Georgia may happen throughout Russia, unless we make a complete change in our attitude to the peasantry" and placed the responsibility for the errors committed on subordinate officials. As a result, the Communist Party of Georgia chose, for the time being, to use peaceful persuasion rather than armed coercion to extend their influence over the peasant masses, and to moderate the attempts to enforce collectivization. The extension of the radical land reform and the relative freedom granted peasants reduced hostility to the new regime. The final victory of the Soviet power in Georgia was so accompanied by moderate economic growth, that ensured relative stability in the country. This started to change in 1930s, when one wave of terror after another swept over the country. The communist party and local intellegencia was purged and even  more people just arrested and deported to Siberia. The Terror simply cut down Georgian society en masse, with some 72,000 people shot and 200,000 deported to the Gulag out of four million. Some groups in mountains tried to resist, byt were crushed. In 1936 a public letter was send out from Georgia to the U.S. Congress by a regional assembly. "This is our strongest appeal to your country. . . . You have the power to assist us in this time of hardship. . .  You are the only ones who could do something for us. . . . Although we don't have proper arms we will defend ourselves by any means with swords and daggers." Such of cries for help of-course did not receive any answer. Stalin used in Georgia successfully rule and divide politics, mixing together different nationalities and creating so permanent conflict between them. This was effectively done in South Ossetia and Abhkazia, whos republic was abolished in 1931 and incorporated to Georgia. 

During the II World War Georgia did not become the real battlefield, even as reaching the Caucasus oilfields was one of the main objectives of Hitler’s soon at the start of the war with the Soviet Union. At the same the sacrificies made by Georgia were high. Around 700 000 Georgians were mobilized to the Red Army, from whom around 350 000 was killed. Number of Georgians fought on the side of Germany in so called Georgian Legion, many exile Georgians in France participating in resistance movement against the German occupation.  In 1944 Stalin ordered the deportation of the Chechen, Ingush, Karachay and the Balkarian peoples from the Northern Caucasus, their respective autonomous republics were abolished. The Georgian SSR was briefly granted some of their territory until 1957.